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科技翻译例文---无损探伤/Nondestructive Testing

时间:2023-8-30 15:46:30 浏览:0

During the past few years the industrial world has witnessed an anazing growth in the use of nondestructive testing methods and techniques. The demand for and use of nondestructive testing will continue to grow at an even more accelerated rate, For example, jet airplanes are operating at higher and higher speeds, jet and conventional airplane engines are developing greater horsepower per pound, and pressure vessels and pipes are operating at higher pressures.18 As our technology advances further there will be a demand and need for new performance from engineering materials. To continue to make engineering advances and to meet the needs of the world's advancing technology, nondestructive testing methods and techniques must find wider applications and new methods and techniques must be developed. Our expanding technology is demanding not only more but better nondestructive testing.


The purpose of this book is to acquaint engineers, metallurgists, and other technical personnel both practicing and "to be" with the (1) basic principles of nondestructive testing, (2) kind of results which can be expected when using these tests, and (3) typical applications. The term "nondestructive testing" is used in this book as a general name given to all test methods which permit testing or inspection of material without impairing its future usefulness. From an industrial viewpoint, the purpose of nondestructive testing is to determine whether a material or part will satisfactorily perform its intended function.


It must be realized that the desired properties or qualities must be built into a product; they cannot be inspected into it.13 The primary purpose of a nondestructive inspection is to determine the existing state or quality of a material, with a view to acceptance or rejection. By use of nondestructive testing methods and techniques it has been possible to decrease the factor of ignorance about material without decreasing the factor of safety in the finished product. Absolute, perfect, and sound industrial material does not exist. Any correctly applied nondestructive test can tell only whether the relative soundness of a specimen lies within specified tolerances. The use of nondestructive testing has been and is being more fully recognized by management as a means of meeting consumer demands for better products, reduced cost, and increased production.


The art and science of nondestructive testing are very old, Probably one of the most famous and well-known examples is that of Archimedes and Hiero's crown. In performing a test to determine if the king had been defrauded by the silversmiths, Archimedes discovered the principle that now bears his name. The art of nondestructive testing is used in many fields of endeavor without even being considered in the realm of nondestructive testing. For example, the fruit vendor who can tell if a watermelon is ripe by "thumping" or if a cantaloupe is ripe by shaking and listening for the "rattle" of the seeds is using nondestructive testing. Nearly every form of energy has been utilized in nondestructive testing. Likewise nearly every property of the materials to be inspected has been made the basis for some method or technique of nondestructive testing. For the purposes of this book all these test methods have been divided into ten groups as follows:




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